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Referencing Techniques

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Referencing Techniques
by Craig Blair - Tuesday, 25 July 2017, 12:40 AM

Here we have put together some referencing for you to consider when handing in your work.

Format for Reference Citation and References

Citation in the main text (Based on Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 3rd ed).

Citation in the main text should be in the form of the authors’ surnames followed by the year of publication. When there are more than two authors and fewer than six authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations include only the surname of the first author followed by ‘et al.’. When a work has six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by ‘et al.’ and the year for the first and subsequent citations. For example:

    • An interface processor is the basis for another human-computer interaction model (Edmonds, Jones and Davies, 1982). [ First citation ]
    • Architecture of an application system produced using the Dialogue management System (Edmonds et al, 1982) approach is shown in Fig 9……..[ Second citation ] 
    • In Bass et al (1981), the interface for a statistical ……..[ First and subsequent citation for a work more than six authors ]

List of References

References should be ordered alphabetically according to the surname of the first author (use the editor’s name or the organisation’s name when the author’s name is absent).

Journal articles

Dicken, G.W., Leitheiser, R.L., Wetherbe, J.C. and Nechis, M. (1984) Key Information Systems Issues for the 1980’s. MIS Quarterly, Vol.8, No. 3, September 1984, pp. 135 – 160.

Gorry, G.A. and Scott-Morton, M.S. (1971). A Framework for Management Information Systems. Sloan Management Review, Vol.13, No.1, Fall 1971, pp. 55 – 70.

Gorry, G.A. and Scott-Morton, M.S. (1971b). A New Framework for Management Information Systems. Sloan Management Review, Vol.13, No.2, Fall 1971, pp. 20 – 30.

Books or a report

Kroeber, D.W and Watson, H.J. (1987). Computer-based information Systems: A Management Approach. Second Edition, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 1987.

Conference paper

Gouda, M.G. and Dayal, U. (1971). Optimal semijoin schedules for query processing in local distributed database systems. In Proceedings of ACM SIGMOD International Conference on the Management of Data, (Ann Arbor, Michican, April 29 – May 1, 1980.) ACM, New York, 1981, pp. 164 – 165.


IBM. (1984). Information Systems Planning Guide. Fourth Edition, July 1984. SPSS Inc. (1983). SPSS-X User’s Guide. McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, 1983.

Unpublished reports and theses

Thorpe, A. (1982). Stability tests on a tender-price prediction model. M.Sc. Thesis, Loughborough University of Technology, UK.; 1982.

To cite a website

International Narcotics Control Board 1999, United Nations, Vienna, accessed 1 October 1999, <>.

To cite a document or page within a website

Winston, J 1999, A look at referencing, AAA Educational Services, accessed 20 October 2002, <>.

To cite a website with no author

Land for sale on moon 2007, accessed 19 June 2007, <>. 

No date

ArtsNSW n.d., New South Wales Premier’s Literary Awards, NSW Department of the Arts, Sport and Recreation, accessed 19 June 2007,

To cite Online Journals accessed via the World Wide Web

Morris, A 2004, ‘Is this racism? Representations of South Africa in the Sydney Morning Herald since the inauguration of Thabo Mbeki as president’, Australian Humanities Review, Issue 33, August - October 2004, accessed 11 May 2007, <>.